However, only 67% of mice in the unstabilized intramuscular group (IM) survived lethal challenge contamination and lost body weight up to 15%, which indicates serious illness (Fig. the new swine H1N1 computer virus (2). The spread of influenza viruses can be prevented Chlorprothixene effectively by vaccination (3). In contrast to standard vaccination by injection with a hypodermic needle by a trained medical expert, vaccination using microneedles has recently been investigated as a simple method of vaccine administration that targets vaccine antigen delivery to the skin (4). Microneedles have been designed in various ways, including formulation as a patch coated with vaccine that can be put on the skin by staff with minimal training or possibly by patients themselves. In addition, immunization via the skin is attractive in part because the epidermis and dermis have abundant antigen-presenting cells such as Langerhans and dermal dendritic cells (5). Previously, microneedles have been analyzed for influenza vaccination using inactivated computer virus antigens using coated microneedle patches (6C11), as well as hollow microneedles for injection (12, 13). These studies showed that influenza vaccination in this way induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses. Virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines have been a major advance in subunit immunogen research and derived Chlorprothixene attention due to their expected improvements in safety and cellular immunogenicity compared to inactivated computer virus vaccines (14). Influenza VLPs have been widely used for influenza vaccination and shown promise for effective vaccination (15). In this study, we evaluate the use of microneedle patches coated with VLPs as a simple method of influenza vaccination. We further examine the role of trehalose to stabilize the VLPs during microneedle covering and thereby maintain immunogenicity. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Preparation of influenza VLPs and coated microneedles VLP vaccine made up of influenza M1 and HA (A/PR/8/34) was prepared Chlorprothixene as described in our previous study (15). Stainless steel microneedles were fabricated using laser trimming and electro-polishing, as explained before (6). To apply a vaccine covering, microneedles were dipped six occasions at room heat into covering answer using a dip-coating device and air flow dried. The standard covering solution was composed of 1% (w/v) carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt (Carbo-Mer), 0.5% (w/v) Lutrol F-68 NF (BASF), and 2 mg/ml VLP vaccine in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). In some cases, 15% (w/v) trehalose (Sigma Aldrich) was added. 2.2. Antigenicity of influenza VLPs according to drying time A 1 L droplet of covering answer either with or without trehalose was mixed with 1 L of VLP vaccine on a 3 mm 3 mm piece of the same stainless steel used to make microneedles. After drying in air flow at room heat for different drying times, the covering was Chlorprothixene dissolved from your metal piece in 100 L of PBS for 12 h. Covering on these metal pieces produced comparable antigen stability to coating stainless steel microneedles (data not shown), which suggests that using these metal pieces is a suitable model system. To determine hemagglutination (HA) titers as a measurement of VLP antigenicity after covering, VLP vaccine dissolved from your metal pieces was serially diluted in 100 L of PBS deficient in Mg2+ and Ca2+, mixed with an equal volume of a fresh 0.5% suspension of chicken red blood cells (Lampire), and incubated for 1 h at 25C. The titers were decided as the endpoint dilutions inhibiting the precipitation of reddish blood cells (16). 2.3. Immunization using microneedles BALB/c mice (Charles River) were anesthetized intramuscularly with 110 mg/kg ketamine (Abbott Laboratories) mixed with 11 mg/kg xylaxine (Phoenix Scientific). The skin on the back of the mouse was uncovered by removing hair with depilatory cream (Nair), washed with 70% ethanol, and dried with a hair dryer. An in-plane, five-needle array of microneedles coated with 1 g of influenza VLP vaccine formulated either with or without trehalose was manually inserted into the skin and left for 10 min to dissolve the vaccine covering in the skin. The vaccine dose Rabbit polyclonal to PDE3A coated on microneedles was measured by a BCA protein assay kit (Pierce). As a positive control, 1 g of influenza VLP vaccine formulated either with or without trehalose was dissolved from a microneedle array in 100 l.
However, only 67% of mice in the unstabilized intramuscular group (IM) survived lethal challenge contamination and lost body weight up to 15%, which indicates serious illness (Fig