The locality, sex, age, and breed of each animal were determined using a questionnaire. and 2009C2011 (104 cats and 106 Ro 3306 dogs). antibodies were measured in the serum samples using a commercial latex agglutination test. Data were compared using the Fishers exact test, and significance was indicated at 0.05. The overall seroprevalence of infection in cats was 5.6% (13 of 233) in 1999C2001 and 6.7% (7 of 104) in 2009C2011, and that in dogs was 1.8% (4 of 219) and 1.9% (2 of 106), respectively. Significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in cats from suburban areas compared with cats in Ro 3306 urban areas during both periods ( 0.05). These results reveal that there has been little change in the feline and canine seroprevalence over the past decade, indicating that the risk of exposure for cats and dogs in Tokyo is considerably low as the seroprevalence has reached a steady state. Introduction Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan parasitic disease with a global distribution. The agent, causes abortion in pregnant women, hydrocephalus in infants, and encephalitis in immunocompromised people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome [1]. Up to one-third of the worldwide population is estimated to be infected with the parasite [2]. In Japan, Sakikawa infection in pregnant women, and the rate of primary infection during pregnancy was 0.25%. Cats and dogs are the most popular pet animals worldwide. Both species are potential sources of zoonotic pathogens such as because they have Rabbit Polyclonal to OR52A4 close contact with humans [4]. Cats play an important role in the lifecycle as the only animal that sheds oocysts into the environment [5]. Although dogs do not produce oocysts, they may mechanically transport oocysts from cat feces to humans because they have the olfactory capacity and habit of seeking out and rolling in foul-smelling substances contaminating their fur [6, 7]. Tokyo is a major city and has the highest population density of humans and domestic dogs in Japan. The feline population density in Tokyo is likely higher than any other city in Japan, although no accurate information is available. The risk of human exposure to may increase in areas with a high density of cats and dogs, and the epidemiological status of the parasite Ro 3306 in these animals in major cities requires clarification. However, no epidemiological surveys have been conducted in Tokyo over the past decade. The present study investigated and compared the seroprevalence of infection in shelter cats and dogs during 1999C2001 and 2009C2011 in Tokyo, Japan. Materials and Methods Study area The study area was divided into two regions, urban and suburban, according to the Tokyo district boundaries. The urban area comprised east Tokyo, including the downtown, commercial, and waterfront areas. The suburban area was located in west Tokyo and included residential and mountainous areas. According to a survey conducted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in 2013 [8], the percentage of green space in the urban and suburban areas was 19.8% and 67.1%, respectively. Ethics statement Serum samples were collected by shelter veterinarians including one of the authors (Yoshikawa S) in accordance with the Guidelines on Research and Survey for using animals in the Tokyo Metropolitan Animal Care and Consultation Center. Approval of an ethics committee was not required for sampling because serum collection is considered a routine procedure, and the sera were collected and stored at the center before the present study was devised. The center gave written permission for the serum samples to be used in this study (Permission number: 22DOSO2350), and the study was performed in collaboration with the center and Nihon University (as per an agreement between the Tokyo Metropolitan Animal Care and Consultation Center and Nihon University for research on zoonoses, January 11, 2012). Serum samples Serum samples were collected from 337 shelter cats and 325 shelter dogs at the center. The sera of 233 cats and 219 dogs were collected between April 1999 and March 2001, and the remaining samples in 104 cats and 106 dogs between April 2009 and March 2011. Blood was aseptically collected from each animal. The serum was separated by centrifugation at 1,000 for 15 min and stored at -30C until analysis. The locality, sex, age, and breed of each animal were determined using a Ro 3306 questionnaire. Each animal was housed individually at the center. serology antibodies were measured in each sample using a commercially available, latex agglutination test kit (Toxocheck-MT; Eiken-Kagaku, Tokyo, Japan) according to the manufacturers instructions with small modifications. Each serum sample was firstly diluted 16-collapse with the diluent buffer, and 25 L of the diluted test sample was further diluted with an equal volume of buffer remedy, generating serial two-fold dilutions from 1:16 to 1 1:1,024. illness was diagnosed at a serum titer greater than 1:64, as described previously [9C14]. Statistical analysis Data were statistically analyzed with the Fishers precise test using JavaScript-STAR ver..

The locality, sex, age, and breed of each animal were determined using a questionnaire